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IELTS Writing Task 2 - Population Growth (Discussion Question)

Updated: Feb 20


Some people believe that the rapid increase in population these days is unsustainable and will eventually lead to a global crisis. Others believe that the world population increase is necessary and beneficial as it creates the growth of the world’s economy and society.


Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.


SAMPLE ESSAY:


The world population has been growing rapidly in the past decades, sparking a debate  about whether it is sustainable or detrimental  for the future of humanity. While some argue that this surge is harmful, others contend that it fosters economic and societal growth. In this essay, I will discuss both perspectives and give my opinion.


On the one hand, opponents of population growth emphasize that an escalating population imposes a huge strain on the global resources . The increasing demand for food, water, and energy has led to environmental degradation , deforestation, and depletion of natural resources . For instance, the rising global meat consumption, driven by population growth, has contributed to deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions associated with livestock farming. Furthermore, the growing population often results in overburdened  urban infrastructure, giving rise to issues like traffic congestion , inadequate housing, and strained healthcare systems. To illustrate, in megacities like Mumbai and Beijing, overcrowded living conditions and inadequate sanitation facilities are becoming increasingly prevalent , posing significant challenges to the well-being of residents.


On the other hand, proponents of this phenomenon, including myself, argue that a larger population can potentially translate into  a larger workforce, fostering productivity and economic development. Countries with youthful populations, such as India, often serve as prime examples, highlighting how a substantial working-age population contributes to economic vitality . Another benefit of the fast-growing population relates to  cultural diversity and the richness of human societies. Increased population could bring together people from different backgrounds, fostering a mix of ideas, traditions, and perspectives. For example, metropolitan areas  with diverse populations often become hubs of creativity and cultural exchange , driving advancements in various fields such as art and technology.


In conclusion, while concerns persist about the repercussions  of population growth in terms of environmental degradation and strained infrastructure, I firmly believe that this phenomenon would be beneficial to global economic and cultural development.



 

VOCABULARY

  • spark a debate (phrase) = dấy lên cuộc tranh luận 

  • detrimental (adj) = gây hại 

  • impose a huge strain on the global resources (phrase) = gây áp lực to lớn lên nguồn tài nguyên toàn cầu

  • environmental degradation (phrase) = sự suy thoái môi trường

  • depletion of natural resources (phrase) = sự cạn kiệt nguồn tài nguyên thiên nhiên

  • overburdened (adj) = quá tải

  • traffic congestion (phrase) = tắc nghẽn giao thông 

  • sanitation facility (phrase) = cơ sở vệ sinh

  • prevalent (adj) = phổ biến

  • translate into sth (phrase) = dẫn đến điều gì đó 

  • economic vitality (phrase) = nền kinh tế khỏe mạnh 

  • relate to sth (phrasal verb) = liên quan đến cái gì đó

  • metropolitan area (phrase) = khu vực đô thị 

  • hub of creativity and cultural exchange (phrase) = trung tâm của sự sáng tạo và trao đổi văn hóa 

  • repercussion (n) = hậu quả 



 

BRAINSTORMING  


Personal Opinion: Population growth is necessary and beneficial for global economic and social development


Body 1: Arguments against population growth 

  • Population growth creates more demand for food, water, and energy, which can lead to various environmental issues (e.g. increased global meat consumption indirectly leads to deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions)

  • Urbanization challenges, like traffic congestion, inadequate housing, and strained healthcare systems, are popular in major cities (e.g. Mumbai and Beijing) → reduced well-being of residents

Body 2: Arguments in favor of population growth + my personal opinion

  • A larger population means there are more workforces → increased work productivity and economic growth (e.g. India)

  • When more people from different cultures come together, they can share their ideas and traditions → new developments in fields like art and technology



 

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